Sp2 Carbon

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  1. Sp2 Carbon Hydrogen Bonds
  2. Sp2 Carbon Technology

The sp 2-on-sp 3 all-carbon heterostructures have been investigated in electronic device applications, such as transistors and radiation detectors. By replacing the commonly used silicon-based substrates with monocrystalline diamond, the maximum current density for the graphene transistors can be as high as 18 µ A nm −2, 57 57. Carbon - sp 2 hybridization. A carbon atom bound to three atoms (two single bonds, one double bond) is sp 2 hybridized and forms a flat trigonal or triangular arrangement with 120° angles between bonds. Notice that acetic acid contains one sp 2 carbon atom and one sp 3 carbon atom. Carbon structure and prperties.' J Despite the sig- nificant research effort invested by many laboratories on understanding the Raman spectroscopy of graphitic ma- terials, the assignments and behavior of several Raman spectral features remain unclear. Our own laboratory has correlated the Raman spectroscopy of sp2 carbon materials.

Click here👆to get an answer to your question ️ The number of sp^2 hybridized carbon atoms in the given compound is.

What is an sp2 hybridized carbon atom?

1 Answer

carbon with #sp^2# hybridized atomic orbital is formed by mixing one s and two p atomic orbitals.


Sp2 carbon vs sp3 carbon

An example of carbon with #sp^2# hybridized atomic orbital is alkene, specifically the two carbons involved in the C=C. Each of that carbon has 3 sigma bonds and 1 pi bond.

Carbon is tetravalent (forms 4 bond) and the ground state electron configuration cannot explain its valency since there's only 2 unpaired electron (left image below).

Therefore, one of the electron in 2s will be promoted to the empty 2pz orbital (middle image below).

In order to form the 3 sigma bonds in ethene, one 2s and two of the 2p orbitals will mix to form three#2sp^2# hybridized orbitals (right image below). These three hybridized orbital will bond with other atoms to form sigma bonds. The remaining one 2p orbital will form a pi bond with 2p orbital of the other carbon through sideway overlap.

Sp2 Carbon Hydrogen Bonds

Note that the three#2sp^2# hybridized orbitals are all degenerate and have lower energy compared to 2p orbital. They will arrange themselves into trigonal planar geometry. Also, they have 33% s character [1/3*100 = 33%].

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Learning Objective

  • Recognize the role of sp2 hybridized atoms in sigma and pi bonding.

Key Points

  • For boron to bond with three fluoride atoms in boron trifluoride (BF3), the atomic s- and p-orbitals in boron’s outer shell mix to form three equivalent sp2 hybrid orbitals.
  • In an ethene molecule, a double bond between carbons forms with one sigma and one pi bond.
  • The sigma bond in the C=C for ethene forms between two sp2 hybrid orbitals of two carbon atoms, and a pi bond for between two p orbitals.


  • sp2 hybridizationthe 2s orbital mixes with only two of the three available 2p orbitals
  • hybridizationmixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals, suitable for pairing electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory

Boron trifluoride (BF3) has a boron atom with three outer-shell electrons in its normal or ground state, as well as three fluorine atoms, each with seven outer electrons. One of the three boron electrons is unpaired in the ground state. In order to explain the bonding, the 2s orbital and two of the 2p orbitals (called sp2 hybrids) hybridize; one empty p-orbital remains.


sp2Hybridization in Ethene and the Formation of a Double Bond

Ethene (C2H4) has a double bond between the carbons. In this case, carbon will sp2 hybridize; in sp2 hybridization, the 2s orbital mixes with only two of the three available 2p orbitals, forming a total of three sp hybrid orbitals with one p-orbital remaining. The three hybridized orbitals explain the three sigma bonds that each carbon forms.

The two carbon atoms form a sigma bond in the molecule by overlapping two sp2 orbitals. Each carbon atom forms two covalent bonds with hydrogen by s–sp2 overlap, all with 120° angles. The pi bond between the carbon atoms perpendicular to the molecular plane is formed by 2p–2p overlap.

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Sp2 Carbon Technology

Sp2 Carbon

Mark Hockenberry
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