# Proton Atom

The Proton The proton is a positively charged particle that is located at the center of the atom in the nucleus. The hydrogen atom is unique in that it only has a single proton and no neutron in its nucleus. Proton, stable subatomic particle that has a positive charge equal in magnitude to a unit of electron charge and a rest mass of 1.67262 x 10^-27 kg, which is 1,836 times the mass of an electron. Protons, together with electrically neutral particles called neutrons, make up.

### How do protons identify an atom?

1. The Atom is a straight flyer with enormous potential off the tee and on long approaches.
2. Under normal circumstances, every atom has an equal number of protons and electrons, and the atom is said to be electrically neutral. (Note that the helium atom has 2 protons and 2 electrons and that the copper atom has 29 of each.).

The number of protons gives ${Z}_{'} a \to m i c \nu m b e r '$......the which unequivocally identifies the given atom.....

#### Explanation:

$Z$ is the so-called $' a \to m i c \nu m b e r '$, the which gives the identity of the of the element. $Z = 1$, the element is hydrogen; $Z = 2$, the element is helium; .... $Z = 46$, the element is palladium.... From where do I get these numbers. Each of these elements has a distinct and characteristic chemistry.

In the neutral atom, the value of $Z$ ALSO gives the number of the electrons that are conceived to orbit the nuclear core. Why is this so?

In the nucleus itself, there may be as many protons or less AS neutrons, massive particles of zero electronic charge. Interactions between nuclear protons and neutrons, at unfeasibly short nuclear ranges, give rise to the strong nuclear force, the which, at this short range, is strong enough to overcome the electrostatic repulsion between the positively charged protons.

I have written here before that the choice of a negatively charged electronic charge, and a positively charged nuclear charge is a bit unfortunate in that chemists who deal with many electron atoms often get the right magnitude but the wrong charge in their calculations, simply because they counted odd instead of even or even instead of odd. The much smaller company of particle physicists, who are a bit on the weird side anyway, could have coped with a nuclear particle that had a negative electronic charge. Alas we are stuck with the convention.

## Atom

The smallest partical of the element, which remain the properties of the element.

OR

Atom is a Greek word and its means is particle, so atom is smallest particle of the mater, which has properties of element. E.g. Iron, Al, cu, etc

## ATOMIC STRUCTURE

An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element. According to the classical Bohr model, atoms have a planetary type of structure that consists of a central nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons. The nucleus consists of positively charged particles called protons and uncharged particles called neutrons. A Short description about these particles is given below.

FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES OF THE ATOM

1. ELECTRON
2. PROTON
3. NEUTRON

## ELECTRON

It also a fundamental particle of the atom. Electron is a particle which has negative charge. It is negative charge. The amount of the charge is -1.6x10-19 coulomb. Mass of electron is 9.11x10-31 kg or 0.00054859 a.m.u. Since atom has equal number of electrons and protons and they have equal and opposite charges hence they cancel their effect and atom becomes neutral. It is 1836 times lighter than proton. It is revolving around the nucleus.

## PROTON

Proton is a particle which has positive charge.It is inside the nucleus. The amount of charge is 1.6x10-19 coulomb. The mass of proton is 1.67x10-27 kg or 1.0072766 a.m.u. It is 1836 times heavier than electron. The number of protons and electrons are equal in an atom.

## NEUTRON

Neutron is a neutral particle thus it has not any charge. Hence the name Neutron is derived form the word neutral. It is heavier than electron. It mass is nearly equal to the mass of proton that is equal to 1.6x10-27kg or 1.0086654 a.m.u. It is 1842 times heavier than electron.both the proton and neutron make the atomic mass of the atom. It resits in site the nucleus.

## ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION

We know that electron is revolving around the nucleus in different position. These positions are called energy levels or shell electrons are distributed among the shell according to 2(N)2 formula.

The number of electron in K shell 2N2 = 2(1)2 = 2

The number of electron in L shell 2N2 = 2(2)2 = 8

The number of electron in M shell 2N2 = 2(3)2 = 18 Etc, etc

The number of electron in the outer most shell is not distributed 2(N) 2 formula. The outer most shell is called valance shell and the electron in it are called valence electron.

FOR EXAMPLE (CU)

ATOMIC NUMBER = 29

## Proton Atomic Number

The number of electron in K Shell = 2(1) = 2
The number of electron in L shell = 2(2)2 = 8
The number of electron in M shell = 2(3)2 = 18
The number of electron in N shell = 1