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Two types of software instruct a computer to perform its tasks—systems software and applications software. Systems software is a permanent component of the computer that controls its fundamental functions. Different kinds of applications software are loaded into the computer as needed to perform specific tasks for the user, such as word processing. Applications software requires the functions provided by the systems software.
A computer's operating system (OS) is the systems software that allows all the dissimilar hardware and software components to work together. It consists of a set of programs that manages all the computer's resources, including the data in main memory and in auxiliary storage. An OS provides services that are needed by applications and software, such as reading data from a hard disk. Parts of an OS may be permanently stored in a computer's ROM /read-only memory/.
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An OS allows programs to run. When a program is running, it is in the process of instructing the computer. For example, when a user plays a video game, the video-game program is running. An OS manages processes, each of which consists of a running program and the resources that the program requires.
Drivers are OS programs that manage data from different I/O devices. Drivers understand the differences in the devices and perform the appropriate translations of input and output data.
Computers write data to, and read from, auxiliary storage in collections called files. The file system of an OS allows programs to give names to files, and it keeps track of each file's location. A file system can also group files into directories or folders.
An advanced OS supports multiprocessing to enable several programs to run simultaneously. It may also include networking services that allow programs running on one computer to communicate with programs running on another.
Modern operating systems provide a graphical user interface (GUI) to make the applications software easier to use. A GUI allows a computer user to work directly with an application program by manipulating text and graphics on the monitor screen through the keyboard and a pointing device such as a mouse rather than solely through typing instructions on command lines. The Apple Computer company's Macintosh computer, introduced in the mid-1980s, had the first commercially successful GUI-based software.
Another example of systems software is a database system. A database system works with the file system and includes programs that allow multiple users to access the files concurrently. Database systems often manage huge amounts (many gigabytes) of data in a secure manner.
Applications software consists of programs that instruct the computer to accomplish specific tasks for the user, such as word processing, operating a spreadsheet, managing accounts in inventories, record keeping, or playing a video game. These programs, called applications, are run only when they are needed. The number of available applications is as great as the number of different uses of computers.
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2. Ответьте на вопросы, используя выделенные в тексте слова.
According to the text which programs
|appeared in mid-1980s.|
|allow people to communicate through computer.|
|work with printers.|
|allow users to work without typing instructions.|
|do tasks for users.|
|are the most numerous.|
|put files into folders.|
|work with lots of data.|
|can’t work without the other system.|
3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты.
|системное программное обеспечение|
|прикладное программное обеспечение|
|загружать в компьютер|
|разнородные аппаратные и программные компоненты|
|вспомогательное запоминающее устройство|
|устройства ввода/вывода информации|
|расширенная операционная система|
|графический интерфейс пользователя|
|система управления базами данных|
4. Выберите слова из списка и заполните таблицу, чтобы получились словосочетания. Переведите словосочетания на русский язык.
operating, system, to work, main, hard, input/output, graphic user, monitor, multiple, huge amounts of, secure, to accomplish.
5. Письменно переведите первые три абзаца текста.