- Isotopes Of All Elements
- Isotopes Of The Same Element Have Different
- Isotopes Of The Same Element Have Different __
- Isotopes Of The Same Element Have Different What
- Isotopes Of The Same Element Have Different Chemical Properties
GENERAL CHEMISTRY TOPICS
As the mass number of an element's isotopes of an element increases, the number of protons a. Decreases b.increases c. Remains the same d.undetermined 1 Educator answer eNotes.com will help you. Differences between isotopes of the same element Each isotope of the same element contains a different number of neutrons and this is the main difference between isotopes of the same element. The isotopes will also have a slightly different atomic mass because of the different number of neutrons. Isotopes of the same element must have the same number of neutrons. Isotopes of the same element must have different numbers of neutrons. A neutral atom of 37.
A neutral atom has the same number of electrons as protons. Thus different isotopes of a given element all have the same number of electrons and share a similar electronic structure. Because the chemical behavior of an atom is largely determined by its electronic structure, different isotopes exhibit nearly identical chemical behavior. Differences between isotopes of the same element Each isotope of the same element contains a different number of neutrons and this is the main difference between isotopes of the same element. The isotopes will also have a slightly different atomic mass because of the different number of neutrons. Radioactive (unstable) isotopes will also have.
An isotope is made up of atoms of the same element that have the same atomic mass. Different isotopes of an element arise from atoms with differing numbers of neutrons. Uses of isotopes. Average atomic masses from natural abundances: The weighted-average calculation.
Atomic number, mass number and isotopes
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The atomic number of an element (symbolized as Z) is the number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms. The mass number (A) is the total number of nucleons (neutrons and protons). An isotope is made up of atoms of the same element (which by definition have a characteristic and fixed atomic number) that also have the same mass number. Different isotopes of an element arise from atoms with differing numbers of neutrons. Because of this, chemists need a way to represent specific isotopes of an element. Isotopes of an element have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers. The atomic number, when represented along with the symbol of an element, is shown as a leading subscript. The mass number is shown as a leading superscript. Since the element symbol implies an atomic number, the latter is often dropped, and an isotope as commonly represented textually with just the mass number and the element symbol (for example 14C or 18O).
In the periodic table, the elements, represented as their symbols, are arranged in a particular pattern that reflects (as we will see) a regularity, or periodicity in their properties. Typically in the table, the element symbol is contained within its own small box, along with other information including the atomic number and the average atomic mass. The average atomic mass of an element represents the averages of its naturally occurring isotopic masses weighted according to their natural abundance. The formula for calculation of average atomic mass and illustration of its use is presented below.
How do the isotopic forms of an element differ from one another, physically and chemically? Isotopes are defined by their subatomic particle composition, which we will think of as a physical property. The chemistry of an element is determined by, in a general sense, the number of valence electrons its atoms possess. The number of valence electrons associated with a neutral atom is in turn determined by the number protons in the nucleus. Thus, two atomic nuclei could have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. Yet since the atoms they are part of would still have the same number of valence electrons, these two atoms would be chemically indistinguishable.*
Uses of isotopes
There are a wide variety of applications of isotopes in nuclear chemistry, medicine, biochemistry, anthropology, paleontology, and geology. Many such uses are based on the phenomenon of radioactivity, shown by some of the isotopes of many of the elements. Such radioactive isotopes are unstable, undergoing spontaneous nuclear decay processes at a rate determined by the half-life of the isotope. One example is the use of 14C - the isotope of carbon with six protons and eight neutrons, which has a half-life of 5730 years - as a basis for dating of materials derived from living organisms that are many thousands of years old. This technique, called radiocarbon dating, is used widely in geosciences and anthropology.
Average atomic masses from natural abundances: The weighted-average calculation
The atomic masses given in the periodic table represent weighted averages based on the natural abundances of the isotopes of a given element. The formula for a weighted average is
Here the xi's are the masses of the individual isotopes, and the wi's are the fractional abundances corresponding to the isotopes. Note that the weights must sum to 1 (equivalently the percent abundances must sum to 100%).
For example, chlorine exists in two isotopic forms, 35Cl and 37Cl. The mass of the 35Cl isotope is 34.97 amu and that of 37Cl is 36.97 amu. The abundances are 75.77% and 24.23%, repectively. Therefore in this case, the weighted average becomes
wa = (0.7577)(34.97 amu) + (0.2423)(36.97 amu) = 35.45 amu
The result of this calculation is the atomic mass of chlorine that appears in the periodic table.
* Actually, since isotopes of an element differ in atomic mass, they can be subtly distinguished by differences in reaction rates, or in physical processes - such as rate of diffusion - affected by mass.
If there are two samples of carbon, one of carbon-12 and one of carbon-14. Do the two isotopes behave differently in chemical reactions at all? Since chemical reactions are based primarily on electrons and electron shells, I don’t imagine that there would be a huge difference, but that is not the same as no difference.
Since I’m not quite sure what could be different about the isotope’s reactivity, interpret my question broadly. “Different” could mean forming certain compounds easier, or maybe a slightly decreased reaction rate in certain cases (even if the decrease is less than 1%).
Since the two isotopes have different masses, do the atoms have different sizes? If they do, then it most likely has an effect in chemical reactions.
Isotopes Of All Elements
This question isn’t solely about carbon specifically. It is about isotopes in general.
So, at the most basic level, the main difference is the energies of the bonds themselves, especially the vibrational energies. Since isotopes are either slightly larger or smaller than the standard atom, bonds to them vibrate at slightly different energies then they would if it were to a standard atom, and this changes the energy of the bond, and makes a difference in terms of cleavage and formation energies. This can actually be fantastically useful in determining chemical mechanisms, and is known as the ‘kinetic isotope effect’, usually primary and secondary isotope effects.
Hydrogen is, naturally, the one that is used most often in these types of experiments, as the isotopes are essentially double and triple the mass of the standard atom, but these effects are still seen for heavier atoms, though you naturally need better and better equipment to tell the difference.
Yes, a Ca^-2 is showing that it has to more electrons that normal so it could bond with C and satisfy the octet. 2Ca normal with carbon would satisfy octet
@SaveTheRhinos Those aren’t the sort of isotopes that I was talking about. Two different isotopes of a specific element are two forms of the element that have a different number of neutrons. This does not affect the number of protons or electrons.
The Wikipedia article on isotope discusses the kinetic isotope effect mentioned above by @BhacSsylan. ”...heavier isotopes tend to react somewhat more slowly than lighter isotopes of the same element.”
Isotopes Of The Same Element Have Different
The same article also notes that ”...isotopologues will have different sets of vibrational modes. Since vibrational modes allow a molecule to absorb photons of corresponding energies, isotopologues have different optical properties in the infrared range.”
Isotopes Of The Same Element Have Different __
Otherwise I don’t think there’s any chemical difference. Electron orbitals, which determine chemical bonding properties and atomic size, are indifferent to the mass of the nucleus & depend only on proton number.
Great Question :)
Isotopes Of The Same Element Have Different What
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Isotopes Of The Same Element Have Different Chemical Properties
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