Electrons have a specific form of distribution (or configuration) in every atom, even Mercury. Some are hard to memorise (or predict), so what is the electron configuration of an atom of Hg? In the case of Mercury the abbreviated electron configuration is Xe 4f14 5d10 6s2. Next, find the atomic number which is located above the element 's symbol. Since mercury mercury 's atomic number is 80 80, Hg Hg has 80 80 protons. 80 80 protons Fill in the known values where N N represents the number of neutrons.
In the modern periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number. The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. The number of protons define the identity of an element (i.e., an element with 6 protons is a carbon atom, no matter how many neutrons may be present). The number of protons determines how many electrons surround the nucleus, and it is the arrangement of these electrons that determines most of the chemical behavior of an element.
In a periodic table arranged in order of increasing atomic number, elements having similar chemical properties naturally line up in the same column (group). For instance, all of the elements in Group 1A are relatively soft metals, react violently with water, and form 1+ charges; all of the elements in Group 8A are unreactive, monatomic gases at room temperature, etc. In other words, there is a periodic repetition of the properties of the chemical elements with increasing mass.
In the original periodic table published by Dimitri Mendeleev in 1869, the elements were arranged according to increasing atomic mass— at that time, the nucleus had not yet been discovered, and there was no understanding at all of the interior structure of the atom, so atomic mass was the only guide to use. Once the structure of the nucleus was understood, it became clear that it was the atomic number that governed the properties of the elements.
Hg Atomic Number
(Planet Mercury) Known to ancient Chinese and Hindus; found in Egyptian tombs of 1500B.C. Mercury is the only common metal liquid at ordinary temperatures. It only rarelyoccurs free in nature. The chief ore is cinnabar, Spain and Italy produce about 50% of theworld's supply of the metal. The commercial unit for handling mercury is the'flask,' which weighs 76 lb. The metal is obtained by heating cinnabar in acurrent of air and by condensing the vapor. It is a heavy, silvery-white metal; a ratherpoor conductor of heat, as compared with other metals, and a fair conductor ofelectricity. It easily forms alloys with many metals, such as gold, silver, and tin, whichare called amalgams. Its ease in amalgamating with gold is made use of in the recovery ofgold from its ores. The most important salts are mercury chloride (corrosive sublimate - aviolent poison), mercurous chloride (calomel, occasionally still used in medicine),mercury fulminate, a detonator widely used in explosives, and mercuric sulfide (vermilion,a high-grade paint pigment). Organic mercury compounds are important. It has been foundthat an electrical discharge causes mercury vapor to combine with neon, argon, krypton,and xenon. These products, held together with van der Waals' forces, correspond to HgNe,HgAr, HgKr, and HgXe. Mercury is a virulent poison and is readily absorbed through therespiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, or through unbroken skin. It acts as acumulative poison and dangerous levels are readily attained in air. Air saturated withmercury vapor at 20C contains a concentration that exceeds the toxic limit many times. Thedanger increases at higher temperatures. It is therefore important that mercury be handledwith care. Containers of mercury should be securely covered and spillage should beavoided. If it is necessary to heat mercury or mercury compounds, it should be done in awell-ventilated hood. Methyl mercury is a dangerous pollutant and is now widely found inwater and streams. The triple point of mercury, -38.8344C, is a fixed point on theInternational Temperature Scale (ITS-90).