Helium Periodic Table

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  1. Properties Of Each Periodic Group
  2. Helium Periodic Table
  3. Helium Periodic Table Group
  1. Helium - Properties, history, name origin, facts, applications, isotopes, electronic configuation, crystal structure, hazards and more; Interactive periodic table of.
  2. Helium element is in period 1 and group 18 of the Periodic table. Helium is the p-block element and it belongs to the Noble gases group. Why is Helium not in Group 2? Do you know how many valence electrons helium has?

Interactive periodic table showing names, electrons, and oxidation states. Visualize trends, 3D orbitals, isotopes, and mix compounds. Fully descriptive writeups.

Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe and is primarily produced because of radioactive decay. It was discovered in 1868 by Jules Janssen and Norman Lockyer.

History and Discovery

The discovery of helium is linked with its primary sources, the sun. In the solar eclipse of 1868, several scientists studied the spectral lines coming from the sun and observed the presence of distinct and unknown yellow lines. These lines were named “Helium” by Norman Lockyer, from the word Helios, which is the name of Greek God of the Sun [1]. Helium was isolated by William Ramsay in 1895. Helium was used as lifting gas for air craft in World War I and in World War II, helium was produced widely and used in welding of shielded arc and lifting gas.

Helium

Periodic Table ClassificationGroup 18
Period 1
State at 20CGas
ColorColorless gas
Electron Configuration1s2
Electron Number2
Proton Number2
Electron Shell2
Density0.18 g.cm-3 at 20°C
Atomic number2
Atomic Mass4.00 g.mol -1
Electronegativity according to PaulingN/A

Occurrence

Helium is present rarely on the Earth. However, it is the 2nd most abundant element in the universe [2]. The atmospheric content of helium on the Earth is only 5.2 ppm [3]. There is a continuous production of helium on the Earth (via radioactive decay), but it readily escapes the Earth’s atmosphere and enter the space. Helium is the most abundant gas in the Earth’s heterosphere (the layer of atmosphere around 80km above Earth). The primary source of helium on Earth are minerals of thorium and uranium, which emit alpha particles (helium nuclei). About 3000 metric tons of helium are produced annually in the lithosphere (the layer of Earth including upper mantle and the crust) [4]. USA has been the biggest producer of helium since its discovery, but till 2012, most of the helium reserves have been exhausted and now account for 30% of the world’s helium supply. New reserves of helium have been discovered in North America. Russia and Qatar have also developed helium production plants.

Physical Properties

Helium is a colorless and odorless gas. It has the lowest melting point among all elements. Its boiling point is close to absolute zero. Helium is hardly soluble in water and is in fact, the least soluble monoatomic gas. Helium is present in plasma state on Earth. The atomic state of helium is predominant in the outer earth and space. There is a considerable difference between the two states of helium. The plasma state of helium has high electrical conductivity. Helium is also highly affected by the magnetic field and interacts with Earth’s magnetosphere to from aurora. Helium remains in liquid form at absolute zero, at standard pressure. This occurs due to quantum mechanics as the zero-point energy of helium is significantly high and does not allow freezing. Helium solidifies at -272C at a pressure of 2.5 MPa (25 bar). The refractive index of solid and liquid helium is almost the same and it is difficult to distinguish between the two states. Helium can solidify at higher temperature under high pressure.

Chemical Properties

Helium is an inert (Nobel) gas under all standard conditions [5]. In plasma form or subjected to electron bombardment, helium can from unstable compounds with certain metals including, sulfur, iodine, phosphorus and tungsten. These compounds are termed as excimers. Helium can exist in molecular ion form, such as HeH+, which is a highly stable but reactive form of helium. Other compounds, known as Van der Waals compounds of helium are also formed with lithium and cryogenic helium gas. Under high pressure, however, helium can form various compounds, for example, helium-nitrogen clathrate (He(N2)11).

Significance and Uses

  • Helium is widely used as coolant in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for medical scanning.
  • It is used in supersonic wind tunnels.
  • Helium is used in arc welding processes.
  • Helium is used as an ideal gas for filling of balloons, and airships, as it is lighter than air and is non-flammable.
  • Helium is used to detect cracks in buildings with high-vacuum rooms, and high-pressure containers, as it can efficiently diffuse through solids.
  • Helium is used as carrier gas in chromatography technique.
Helium Periodic Table

Health Hazards

Helium is non-toxic but can lead to poisonous effects if inhaled in high concentrations, it can lead to suffocation and death. Minor inhalation of helium can lead to change in the voice (becomes reedy) of individual, as sound waves travel faster in helium as compared to air. This effect is short term and not dangerous [6].

Images

Isotopes of Helium

There are nine isotopes of helium, and only two are stable, helium-3 and helium-4. The two stable isotopes occur in a ratio of 1:1000,000 in the Earth’s atmosphere. The most abundant isotope (helium-4) is produced because of alpha decay of radioactive elements, such as uranium. Helium-3 is present in scarce amount on Earth and is formed by beta decay of tritium. Helum-4 is highly stable isotope. It is also formed as a result of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Helim-3 is found in abundance in stars. It is also present on the surface of the Moon surface. Artificial isotopes of helium are also present, including helium-6, helium- and helium-8, where helium-7 and helium-8 are produced during various nuclear reactions [7].

REFERECNES

Helium periodic table of elements

[1]. Harper, Douglas. “helium”. Online Etymology Dictionary.

[2]. Emsley, John (2001). Nature’s Building Blocks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 175–179. ISBN978-0-19-850341-5.

Periodic

[3]. “The Atmosphere: Introduction”. JetStream – Online School for Weather. National Weather Service. 2007-08-29. Archived from the original on January 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-12.

Properties Of Each Periodic Group

[4]. Morrison, P.; Pine, J. (1955). “Radiogenic Origin of the Helium Isotopes in Rock”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 62 (3): 71–92. Bibcode:1955NYASA..62…71M. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1955.tb35366.x.

[5]. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN0-8493-0486-5.

[6]. Ackerman, M. J.; Maitland, G. (1975). “Calculation of the relative speed of sound in a gas mixture”. Undersea Biomed Res. 2 (4): 305–10. PMID1226588. Retrieved 2008-08-09.

[7]. “Helium Gas Safety & Data Sheet”. bouncetime

Other Periodic Table Elements

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There's Hydrogen and helium
And Lithium, Beryllium
Boron, Carbon everywhere
Nitrogen all through the air
With Oxygen so you can breathe
Anf Fluorine for your pretty teeth
Neon to light up the signs
Sodium for salty times

Magnesium
Aluminium, Silicon
Phosphorus then Sulfur, Chlorine and Argon
Potassium
And Calcium so you'll grow strong
Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium and Chromium and Manganese

Related

This is the PERIODIC TABLE
Noble gas is stable
Halogens and Alkali react aggressively
Each period we'll see new outer shells
While electrons are added moving to the right

Iron is the 26th
Then Cobalt, Nickel coins you get
Copper, Zinc and Gallium
Germanium and Arsenic
Selenium and Bromine film
While Krypton helps light up your room
Rubidium and Strontium
Then Yttrium, Zirconium

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Niobium
Molybdenum, Technetium
Ruthenium
Rhodium, Palladium
Silver-ware
Then Cadmium and Indium
Tin cans, Antimony and Tellurium then
Iodine and Xenon and then Caesium and...

Helium Periodic Table

Barium is the 56th and this is where the table splits
Where lanthanides have just begun
Lanthanum, Cerium and Praseodymium
Neodymium's next to
Promethium then 62's
Samarium, Europium
Gadolinium and Terbium
Dysprosium, Holmium, Erbium, Thulium
Ytterbium, Lutetium

Hafnium
Tantalum, Tungsten and we're on to
Rhenium
Osmium and Iridium
Platinum, Gold to make you rich when you grow old
Mercury to tell you when it's really cold

Thallium
And Lead then Bismuth for your tummy
Polonium, Astatine would not be yummy
Radon, Francium will last a little time
Radium then actinides at 89

Helium Periodic Table Group

This is the PERIODIC TABLE
Noble gas is stable
Halogens and Alkali react aggressively
Each period we'll see new outer shells
While electrons are to the right

Actinium
Thorium, Protactinium
Uranium
Neptunium, Plutonium
Americium, Curium, Berkelium
Californium, Einsteinium, Fermium
Mendelevium, Nobelium, Lawrencium
Rutherfordium, Dubnium, Seaborgium
Bohrium, Hassium
Then Meitnerium
Darmstadtium, Roentgenium
Copernicium

Nihonium, Flerovium
Moscovium, Livermorium
Tennessine and Oganesson
And then we're done