Fluorine Atom

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  1. Fluorine Atom Model
  2. Fluorine Atom Model
  3. Fluorine Atom
  4. Fluorine Atomic N
  5. Fluorine Atomic Structure

The most reactive element on the Periodic Table, fluorine has a violent history in the quest for its discovery. Despite the difficult and sometimes explosive properties of fluorine, it is a vital.

  • Formula: F
  • Molecular weight: 18.9984032
  • IUPAC Standard InChI:
    • InChI=1S/F
    • Download the identifier in a file.
  • CAS Registry Number: 14762-94-8
  • Chemical structure:
    This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file
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Fluorine Atom
  • IUPAC Standard InChIKey: YCKRFDGAMUMZLT-UHFFFAOYSA-N CAS Registry Number: 14762-94-8 Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file; Permanent link for this species. Use this link for bookmarking this species for future reference.
  • 1, 2 enthalpy of formation based on version 1.122 of the Thermochemical Network This version of ATcT results was partially described in Ruscic et al. , and was also used for the initial development of high-accuracy ANLn composite electronic structure methods.

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Gas phase thermochemistry data


Go To:Top, References, Notes

Data compilation copyrightby the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A.All rights reserved.

Δfgas79.38 ± 0.30kJ/molReviewCox, Wagman, et al., 1984CODATA Review value
Δfgas79.39kJ/molReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in June, 1982
gas,1 bar158.751 ± 0.004J/mol*KReviewCox, Wagman, et al., 1984CODATA Review value
gas,1 bar158.78J/mol*KReviewChase, 1998Data last reviewed in June, 1982

Gas Phase Heat Capacity (Shomate Equation)

Cp° = A + B*t + C*t2 + D*t3 + E/t2
H° − H°298.15= A*t + B*t2/2 + C*t3/3 + D*t4/4 − E/t + F − H
S° = A*ln(t) + B*t + C*t2/2 + D*t3/3 − E/(2*t2) + G
Cp = heat capacity (J/mol*K)
H° = standard enthalpy (kJ/mol)
S° = standard entropy (J/mol*K)
t = temperature (K) / 1000.

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Temperature (K)298. - 6000.
ReferenceChase, 1998
CommentData last reviewed in June, 1982


Go To:Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, Notes

Data compilation copyrightby the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A.All rights reserved.

Cox, Wagman, et al., 1984
Cox, J.D.; Wagman, D.D.; Medvedev, V.A.,CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York, 1984, 1. [all data]

Chase, 1998
Chase, M.W., Jr.,NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, Fourth Edition,J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 9, 1998, 1-1951. [all data]


Go To:Top, Gas phase thermochemistry data, References

  • Symbols used in this document:
    gas,1 barEntropy of gas at standard conditions (1 bar)
    ΔfgasEnthalpy of formation of gas at standard conditions
  • Data from NIST Standard Reference Database 69:NIST Chemistry WebBook
  • The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of theDatabase and to verify that the data contained therein havebeen selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment.However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NISTshall not be liable for any damage that may result fromerrors or omissions in the Database.
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Fluorine (from L. Fluere, meaning 'to flow'), is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol AtomF and atomic number 9. It is a poisonous pale yellow, univalent gaseous halogen that is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements. In its pure form, it is highly dangerous, causing severe chemical burns on contact with skin.
Oxygen – Fluorine – Neon


Name, Symbol, NumberFluorine, F, 9
Group, Period, Block17 (VIIA), 2 , p
Density, Hardness1.696 kg/m3(273 K), NA
Appearancepale greenish-yellow gas
Atomic properties
Atomic weight18.9984 amu
Atomic radius (calc.)50 (42) pm
Covalent radius71 pm
van der Waals radius147 pm
Electron configuration[He]2s2 2p5
e- 's per energy level2, 7
Oxidation states (Oxide)-1 (strong acid)
Crystal structurecubic
Physical properties
State of matterGas (nonmagnetic)
Melting point53.53 K (-363.32 °F)
Boiling point85.03 K (-306.62 °F)
Molar volume11.20 ×10-6 m3/mol
Heat of vaporization3.2698 kJ/mol
Heat of fusion0.2552 kJ/mol
Vapor pressureno data
Speed of soundno data
Electronegativity3.98 (Pauling scale)
Specific heat capacity824 J/(kg*K)
Electrical conductivityno data
Thermal conductivity0.0279 W/(m*K)
1st ionization potential1681.0 kJ/mol
2nd ionization potential3374.2 kJ/mol
3rd ionization potential6050.4 kJ/mol
4th ionization potential8407.7 kJ/mol
5th ionization potential11022.7 kJ/mol
6th ionization potential15164.1 kJ/mol
7th ionization potential17868 kJ/mol
8th ionization potential92038.1 kJ/mol
9th ionization potential106434.3 kJ/mol
SI units & STP are used except where noted.

Notable characteristics

Pure fluorine is a corrosive pale yellow gas that is a powerful oxidizing agent. It is the most reactive and electronegative of all the elements, and forms compounds with most other elements, including the noble gases xenon and radon. Even in dark, cool conditions, fluorine reacts explosively with hydrogen. In a jet of fluorine gas, glass, metals, water and other substances burn with a bright flame. It always occurs combined and has such an affinity for most elements, especially silicon, that it can neither be prepared nor should be kept in glass vessels.

In aqueous solution, fluorine commonly occurs as the fluoride ion F-. Other forms are fluoro-complexes (such as [FeF4]-) or H2F+.

Fluorides are compounds that combine fluoride with some positively charged rest. They often consist of ions.


Fluorine is used in the production of low friction plastics such as Teflon, and in halons such as Freon. Other uses:
  • Hydrofluoric acid (chemical formula HF) is used to etch glass in light bulbs and other products.
  • Monatomic fluorine is used for plasma ashing in semiconductor manufacturing.
  • Along with its compounds, fluorine is used in the production of uranium (from the hexafluoride) and in more than 100 different commercial fluorochemicals, including many high-temperature plastics.
  • Fluorochlorohydrocarbons are used extensively in air conditioning and in refrigeration. Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned for these applications because they are suspected to contribute to the ozone hole. Sulfurhexafluoride is an extremely inert and nontoxic gas. These classes of compounds are potent greenhouse gases.
  • Potassiumhexafluoroaluminate, the so-called cryolite, is used in electrolysis of Aluminium.
  • Sodium fluoride has been used as an insecticide, especially against cockroaches.
  • Some other fluorides are often added to toothpaste and (somewhat controversially) to municipal water supplies to prevent dental cavities.

Some researchers have studied elemental fluorine gas a possible rocket propellant due to its exceptionally high specific impulse.


Fluorine (Lfluere meaning flow or flux) in the form of fluorspar was described in 1529 by Georigius Agricola for its use as a flux, which is a substance that is used to promote the fusion of metals or minerals. In 1670 Schwandhard found that glass was etched when it was exposed to fluorspar that was treated with acid. Karl Scheele and many later researchers, including Humphry Davy, Gay-Lussac, Antoine Lavoisier, and Louis Thenard all would experiment with hydrofluoric acid (some experiments would end in tragedy).

Fluorine Atom Model

This element was not isolated for many years after this due to the fact that when it is separated from one of its compounds it immediately attacks the remaining materials of the compound. Finally in 1886 fluorine was isolated by Henri Moissan after almost 74 years of continuous effort.

The first commercial production of fluorine was for the atomic bomb Manhattan project in World War II where the compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6) was used to separate isotopes of uranium. This process is still is use today in nuclear power applications.


Fluorine can often be substituted for hydrogen when it occurs in organic compounds. Through this mechanism, fluorine can have a very large number of compounds. Fluorine compounds involving noble gases have been confirmed with fluorides of krypton, radon, and xenon. This element is recovered from fluorite, cryolite, and fluorapatite.


Fluorine Atom Model

Fluorine and HF must be handled with great care and any contact with skin and eyes should be strictly avoided.

Both elemental fluorine and fluoride ions are highly toxic. When it is a free element, fluorine has a characteristic pungent odor that is detectable in concentrations as low as 20 ppb. It is recommended that the maximum allowable concentration for a daily 8-hour time-weighted exposure is 1 ppm (lower than e.g. hydrogen cyanide)

However, safe handling procedures enable the transport of liquid fluorine by the ton.


Fluorine Atom

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory – Fluorine(http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/9.html)

Fluorine Atomic N

External links

Fluorine Atomic Structure

  • WebElements.com – Fluorine(http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/F/index.html)
  • EnvironmentalChemistry.com – Fluorine(http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/F.html)
  • It's Elemental – Fluorine(http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele009.html)