Charged Atom

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  1. According to his atom diagram, the atom has a small, positively charged nucleus in center. This nucleus carries the entire mass of the atom. Electrons revolve around the nucleus at a high-speed. The number of electrons were equal to the number of protons and therefore, an atom is electrically neutral.
  2. The atom has a nucleus, which contains particles of positive charge and particles of neutral charge. Surrounding the nucleus of an atom are shells of electrons - small negatively charged particles. These shells are actually different energy levels and within the energy levels, the electrons orbit the nucleus of the atom.
Charged Atom

Atoms vs. Ions

Atoms are neutral; they contain the same number of protons as electrons. By definition,an ion is an electrically charged particle produced by either removing electronsfrom a neutral atom to give a positive ion or adding electrons to a neutralatom to give a negative ion. When an ion is formed, the number of protonsdoes not change.

A charged atom or molecule is called an ion. An atom or molecule always has charged particles in it called protons, which have a positive charge. Most atoms or molecules carry exactly the same number of electrons, which have a negative charge. This makes the positive. The nucleus (center) of the atom contains the protons (positively charged) and the neutrons (no charge). The outermost regions of the atom are called electron shells and contain the electrons (negatively charged). Atoms have different properties based on the arrangement and number of their basic particles. On this page you will find the solution to Charged atom crossword clue crossword clue. This clue was last seen on April 30 2020 on New York Times’s Crossword. If you have any other question or need extra help, please feel free to contact us or use the search box/calendar for any clue.

Neutral atoms can be turned into positively charged ions by removing oneor more electrons. A neutral sodium atom, for example, contains 11 protonsand 11 electrons. By removing an electron from this atom we get a positivelycharged Na+ ion that has a net charge of +1.

Atoms that gain extra electrons become negatively charged. A neutral chlorineatom, for example, contains 17 protons and 17 electrons. By adding one moreelectron we get a negatively charged Cl- ion with a net charge of -1.

The gain or loss of electrons by an atom to form negative or positive ionshas an enormous impact on the chemical and physical properties of the atom.Sodium metal, for example, which consists of neutral sodium atoms, burstsinto flame when it comes in contact with water. Neutral chlorine atoms instantlycombine to form Cl2 molecules, which are so reactive that entire communities are evacuatedwhen trains carrying chlorine gas derail. Positively charged Na+ and negatively charged Cl- ions are so unreactive that we can safely take them into our bodies wheneverwe salt our food.

Comparing structural effects on acidity

Generally, negative charges are stabilized by allowing the charge to delocalize over a bigger space or over more atoms. Typically, a molecule that holds the negative charge over several atoms will be more stable than a molecule that localizes the full charge on a single atom. The main features that determine the stability of a negative charge are the following:

  • The electronegativity of the atom on which the negative charge is located
  • The size of the atom on which the negative charge is located
  • Stabilization of the negative charge through resonance
  • Stabilization of the negative charge by adjacent electronegative atoms

Charged Atoms Crossword Clue

I'll look at each of these factors individually.

Electronegativity of negatively charged atom

Simply put, negative charges prefer to rest on more electronegative elements (see here for more on electronegativity) than on more electropositive elements (like carbon). That's why water is more acidic than ammonia (NH3), because oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen. Similarly, both water and ammonia are more acidic than methane (CH4) since carbon is more electropositive than nitrogen or oxygen.

Size of negatively-charged atom

The size of the atom on which the negative charge rests also effects the stability. As a general rule, negative charges prefer to rest on larger atoms, as the charge can spread over a much larger region of space (making it more stable) than when the charge is localized in a much smaller space on a smaller atom. Generally, this preference for placing the charge on a larger atom trumps electronegativity considerations. For example, HI is more acidic than HF, even though based on the last argument about electronegativity you might suspect that F- would be more stable than I- because fluorine is more electronegative than iodine (and thus HF would be a stronger acid than HI). This turns out not to be the case. Iodine is so much bigger than fluorine that the charge is more stable on this larger atom. Thus, the trends for acidity of the hydrohalic acids are as follows: HI is strongest, followed by HBr, HCl, and finally HF.

Resonance stabilization

One of the most important effects on the acidity of a molecule is whether the conjugate base anion can be stabilized by resonance. Phenol, for example (shown below), is about 1,000,000 times stronger an acid than cyclohexanol because the conjugate base of phenol is much more stable than the conjugate base of cyclohexanol. This added stability of the phenol conjugate base arises because this anion can delocalize the negative charge throughout the ring through resonance, effectively stabilizing it. The conjugate base of cyclohexanol has no resonance structures to stabilize the charge and so is less stable.

Electons on phenol are stabilized by their delocalization throughout the ring (shown below); cyclohexane has no electron delocalization, and thus is a much weaker acid.

Charged Atom Definition

Neighboring electronegative groups

The presence of electronegative groups near a hydrogen also makes it more acidic. You can see why this is so by using the same analysis as before. That is, somehow the presence of these electronegative atoms must stabilize the conjugate base anion. For example, substituting the electronegative atom chlorine for hydrogen in acetic acid makes the molecule about 100 times more acidic (recall that the pKa scale is defined logarithmically). This increase in acidity is due to the electronegative chlorine atom pulling some of the electron density away from the oxygens, making the oxygens not having to bear all of the negative charge by themselves.