How can I make a calcium atom model?
You can use marshmallows or craft cotton balls, poster board, compass, glue, and string to make a model of a calcium atom.
Here is a summary of the instructions from ehow.
Calcium Atom Calcium atoms are thought to insert into GeCl and GeGe bonds in a metal vapour reaction to give the corresponding germylcalcium compounds as cocondensation intermediates which react with H2O or PhBr in the expected manner (Scheme 42). From: Comprehensive Organometallic Chemistry II. Calcium is the most abundant of the metallic elements in the human body. The average adult body contains about 1 kg or 2 lb of calcium, 99% of which is in the bones and teeth. Only oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen are more abundant in our bodies than calcium. It is not always easy to make sensible comparisons between the elements however as some bonds are quite short because of multiple bonding (for instance the O=O distance in O 2 is short because of the the double bond connecting the two atoms. The bond length in CaCa is: 394.7pm. There are several other ways ways to define radius for atoms and ions. Interestingly, calcium seems to come in fifth place wherever it goes: It is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust (after oxygen, silicon, aluminum and iron); the fifth most.
Their instructions are for a sodium atom, but we can adjust them to make a model of any atom.
You will need 40 large balls (20 of one colour for the protons and 20 of another colour for the neutrons) and 20 small balls for the electrons.
Glue the protons and neutrons into a ball, alternating between protons and neutrons as you go (you can use toothpicks to hold marshmallows together).
Cut a small, a medium, a large, and an extra-large ring out of cardstock.
Use string to tie these rings in concentric circles around the nucleus (the picture below has only three rings for a sodium atom).
Glue two electrons to the small circle, eight to the medium circle, eight to the large circle, and two to the extra-large circle.
Attach string to the outer circle for hanging, and display your 3D model of calcium (the picture below is of sodium).
The Element Calcium
[Click for Isotope Data]
Atomic Number: 20
Atomic Weight: 40.078
Melting Point: 1115 K (842°C or 1548°F)
Boiling Point: 1757 K (1484°C or 2703°F)
Density: 1.54 grams per cubic centimeter
Phase at Room Temperature: Solid
Element Classification: Metal
Period Number: 4
Group Number: 2
Group Name: Alkaline Earth Metal
What's in a name? From the Latin word for lime, calx.
Say what? Calcium is pronounced as KAL-see-em.
History and Uses:
Although calcium is the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust, it is never found free in nature since it easily forms compounds by reacting with oxygen and water. Metallic calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 through the electrolysis of a mixture of lime (CaO) and mercuric oxide (HgO). Today, metallic calcium is obtained by displacing calcium atoms in lime with atoms of aluminum in hot, low-pressure containers. About 4.2% of the earth's crust is composed of calcium.
Calcium Atom Info
Due to its high reactivity with common materials, there is very little demand for metallic calcium. It is used in some chemical processes to refine thorium, uranium and zirconium. Calcium is also used to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon from certain alloys. Calcium can be alloyed with aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead and magnesium. Calcium is also used in vacuum tubes as a getter, a material that combines with and removes trace gases from vacuum tubes.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is one of the common compounds of calcium. It is heated to form quicklime (CaO) which is then added to water (H2O). This forms another material known as slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) which is an inexpensive base material used throughout the chemical industry. Chalk, marble and limestone are all forms of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate is used to make white paint, cleaning powder, toothpaste and stomach antacids, among other things. Other common compounds of calcium include: calcium sulfate (CaSO4), also known as gypsum, which is used to make dry wall and plaster of Paris, calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2), a naturally occurring fertilizer and calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2), the main material found in bones and teeth.
Estimated Crustal Abundance: 4.15×104 milligrams per kilogram
Estimated Oceanic Abundance: 4.12×102 milligrams per liter
Number of Stable Isotopes: 3 (View all isotope data)
Ionization Energy: 6.113 eV
Oxidation States: +2
Electron Shell Configuration:
For questions about this page, please contact Steve Gagnon.