# C Valence Electrons

Formal charge = Valence Electrons – Unbonded Electrons – ½ Bonded Electrons. It is zero for each atom. Why there is a double bond formed between the carbon and oxygen atoms in CH2O? The carbon needs to have eight valence electrons similar to that of the oxygen atom. Whereas, a single hydrogen atom needs only two valence electrons in total. The bonds account for 6 of the valence electrons, the 2 left over electrons are the lone pair of electrons on N. Ethylene – C 2 H 4 Number of valence electrons: 4 of each carbon (8 total) and 1 each from 4 H = 12 The single bonds account for 10 valence electrons. A double bond between the 2 carbon atoms is. Valence Electrons & Valency of Hydrogen (H). Valence Electrons & Valency of Carbon (C). Valence Electrons & Valency of Chlorine (Cl). Valency of Oxygen (O) There are many different ways to find out the valency of an atom which reflects the ability of an atom to bond with other atoms. Valence describes how easily an atom or a free radical can. Drawing the Lewis Structure for HCO 2. Viewing Notes: There are a total of 18 valence electrons in the HCO 2-Lewis structure.; HCO 2-is also called Formate Ion.; Carbon (C) is the least electronegative atom and goes at the center of the HCO 2-Lewis structure. Many of you have this question of how many electrons are in the last cell of carbon or how many valence electrons does carbon have? In simple words, the number of electrons present in the valence shell (last electronic shell) is called valence electron. The above two questions mean the same thing, so the carbon has four valence electrons.

Carbon belongs to the 2nd period of the periodic table. It is located in the ‘P’ block. Thus the outermost electrons of the atom are present in the ‘P’ orbital. It can form bonds with itself which is termed as concatenation.

## Electrons in carbon

Carbon is present in group 14 of the periodic table.

Carbon has an atomic number of six and a mass number of 12.01u. Thus in a neutral atom of carbon, there exist six electrons. Two electrons are present in the inner orbit and four electrons are present in the outermost orbit. The outermost orbital can hold a maximum of eight electrons.The electronic configuration of carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2.

Thus the ‘P’ orbital is the outermost orbital. To achieve stable gas configuration carbon needs to have a fulfilled p orbital. The closest noble gas neon (Ne) has the electronic configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6. Thus the carbon needs to get 4 more electrons. Carbon usually forms covalent bonds and shares electrons to achieve this stability. Carbon is neither an electropositive nor an electronegative element so it forms covalent compounds. Carbon has the unique property of concatenation where it can form bonds with itself continuously in a chain or ring form.

### Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Each carbon atom is bonded to two oxygen atoms. The carbon atom forms a double bond with each oxygen atom. It shares 4 electrons with oxygen(2 from each) thus filling its p orbital. One electron from 2s orbital moves from 2s to 2p forming 2 sp hybridized orbitals of carbon which overlap with two p orbitals of the oxygen atoms to form 2 sigma bonds. The two remaining p electrons form pi bonds. Thus a linear structure is formed. The central atom of carbon dioxide which is carbon is thus sp hybridized.

### Ethene (C2H4)

Ethene contains two carbon atoms which are doubly bonded to each other. Each carbon atom is bonded to two hydrogen atoms each. Each carbon thus shares two electrons with the carbon atom it is bonded to. The two hydrogen atoms bonded to each carbon atom share two electrons with the carbon atom (one electron from each hydrogen). Thus carbon shares four electrons and fulfills its p orbital. Each carbon atom is SP2 hybridized and has a triangular planar structure.

### Methane (CH4)

Each carbon atom is bonded to four hydrogen atoms. Each carbon atom forms one covalent bond with each hydrogen atom. It shares 4 electrons with hydrogen (1 from each) thus filling its ‘P’ orbital. Here the electronic configuration of carbon changes from 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1 to 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1. Thus it can form 4 bonds and make a tetrahedral sp3 structure.

Carbon has 4 valence electrons in the outermost shell. Carbon has atomic number 6 which belongs to group 14 in the periodic table. A carbon atom has a total of 6 electrons revolving around the nucleus. The innermost shell of the carbon is fully occupied with 2 electrons in the 1s orbital while the next shell which is also the outermost shell gets partially filled with the remaining 4 electrons. These four electrons are the valence electrons of the carbon that are present in the 2s and 2p orbitals of the outermost shell.

## What are valence electrons in Carbon?

Valence electrons are the electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom. These valence electrons actively participate in the formation of various chemical bonds if the outermost shell partially occupied. The presence of the valence electrons is responsible for the chemical properties of that element.

In the case of the carbon atom, there are 4 valence electrons in the outermost shell which form a covalent bond with other atoms. Let us take the example of Methane (CH4) which is consists of one carbon and four hydrogen atoms. The four valence electrons of the carbon atom form a covalent bond with the one valence electron present in the hydrogen atom.

## How to read an electron configuration in Carbon?

One of the best ways to find the number of valence electrons in carbon is by writing down the electron configuration in a carbon atom. Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus in different orbitals and energy levels. There are different types of orbitals such as s, p, d, and f. The maximum capacity of s, p, d, and f orbitals is 2, 6, 10, and 14 respectively.

The electrons in different orbitals are filled based on the Aufbau principle which states that the electrons are filled into the orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels.

So based on the Aufbau principle, the electron configuration of carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2.

## How to find valence electrons in carbon?

Method 1:

According the electron configuration of carbon atom, 1s2 2s2 2p2

There are 4 valence electrons (2s2 2p2) in the outermost shell of the carbon atom.

Method 2:

The valence electron of the carbon can be determined using a Periodic Table. Each column in the Periodic Table represents a group of elements. All elements in a column have the same number of valence electrons but in different energy levels.

## Valence Electrons Calculator

From the above periodic table, one can easily find out the valence electron of the carbon atom. Carbon atom belongs to group 14 in which all elements have 4 valence electrons.