# Boron Atom

### What is the shorthand notation for a ground-state boron (B) atom?

#### Explanation:

• An electron in a boron atom makes a transition from the fifth excited state to the third excited state. Did the atom become ionized as a result? Did the atom become excited as a result? Was a blackbody spectrum produced? How do you know?
• Boron atoms are substitutionally incorporated in diamond, and the B-dopants create acceptor levels at 0.37 eV above the valence band maximum. From: Diamond Films, 2005. Related terms: Anion; Hydrogen; Nitrogen; Ligand; Carborane; Graphene; Ion; Behavior as Electrode.
• Each boron atom has a formal −1 charge and magnesium is assigned a formal charge of +2. In this material, the boron centers are trigonal planar with an extra double bond for each boron, forming sheets akin to the carbon in graphite. However, unlike hexagonal boron nitride, which lacks electrons in the plane of the covalent atoms, the.

Again, this compound contains a boron atom that is two electrons short of an octet. Diborane (B 2 H 6) is unusual in that each of the two hydrogen atoms in the compound shares its electron with two boron atoms — this arrangement is known as a three-center two-electron bond. More than 50 different boranes are now known and the complexity of.

An element's noble gas shorthand notation makes use of the electron configuration of the noble gas that comes immediately before the element in the periodic table.

Start by writing the complete electron configuration of boron, $' B '$. Boron is located in period 2, group 13, and has an atomic number equal to $5$.

This means that the electron configuration of a neutral boron atom must account for a total of $5$electrons. The complete electron configuration for a boron atom will look like this

$' B : ' 1 {s}^{2} 2 {s}^{2} 2 {p}^{1}$

Now, the noble gas that comes immediately before boron in the periodic table is located in period 1, group 18, and it's called helium, $' H e '$.

## Boron Atom Model

The complete electron configuration of a helium atom looks like this

## Boron Atomic Structure

$' H e : ' \textcolor{b l u e}{1 {s}^{2}}$

Notice that the complete electron configuration of boron includes the complete electron configuration of helium. You can thus replace this in the electron configuration of boron to get its noble gas shorthand notation

$' B : ' \textcolor{b l u e}{1 {s}^{2}} 2 {s}^{2} 2 {p}^{1} ' '$ will now become $' ' \textcolor{g r e e n}{\overline{\underline{\textcolor{w h i t e}{\frac{a}{a}} \textcolor{b l a c k}{' B : ' \left[' H e '\right] 2 {s}^{2} 2 {p}^{1}} \textcolor{w h i t e}{\frac{a}{a}}}}}$

Notice that the brackets and the symbol of the noble gas are used to symbolize its electron configuration.

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## Boron Element Structure

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Alternative Title: B

Boron (B), chemical element, semimetal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table, essential to plant growth and of wide industrial application.

## Number Of Protons In Boron

Periodic Table of the Elements
Test your bond with the periodic table of elements in this quiz on all 118 chemical elements and their symbols. You may be familiar with the chemical symbols for hydrogen and oxygen, but can you match such lower-profile elements as gadolinium and erbium with their corresponding symbols?
atomic number 5 [10.806, 10.821] 2,200 °C (4,000 °F) 2,550 °C (4,620 °F) 2.34 (at 20 °C [68 °F]) +3 1s22s22p1

## Properties, occurrence, and uses

Pure crystalline boron is a black, lustrous semiconductor; i.e., it conducts electricity like a metal at high temperatures and is almost an insulator at low temperatures. It is hard enough (9.3 on Mohs scale) to scratch some abrasives, such as carborundum, but too brittle for use in tools. It constitutes about 0.001 percent by weight of Earth’s crust. Boron occurs combined as borax, kernite, and tincalconite (hydrated sodium borates), the major commercial boron minerals, especially concentrated in the arid regions of California, and as widely dispersed minerals such as colemanite, ulexite, and tourmaline. Sassolite—natural boric acid—occurs especially in Italy.

Boron was first isolated (1808) by French chemists Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thenard and independently by British chemist Sir Humphry Davy by heating boron oxide (B2O3) with potassium metal. The impure amorphous product, a brownish black powder, was the only form of boron known for more than a century. Pure crystalline boron may be prepared with difficulty by reduction of its bromide or chloride (BBr3, BCl3) with hydrogen on an electrically heated tantalum filament.

Limited quantities of elemental boron are widely used to increase hardness in steel. Added as the ironalloyferroboron, it is present in many steels, usually in the range 0.001 to 0.005 percent. Boron is also used in the nonferrous-metals industry, generally as a deoxidizer, in copper-base alloys and high-conductance copper as a degasifier, and in aluminum castings to refine the grain. In the semiconductor industry, small, carefully controlled amounts of boron are added as a doping agent to silicon and germanium to modify electrical conductivity.

In the form of boric acid or borates, traces of boron are necessary for growth of many land plants and thus are indirectly essential for animal life. Typical effects of long-term boron deficiency are stunted, misshapen growth; vegetable “brown heart” and sugar beet “dry rot” are among the disorders due to boron deficiency. Boron deficiency can be alleviated by the application of soluble borates to the soil. In excess quantities, however, borates act as unselective herbicides. Gigantism of several species of plants growing in soil naturally abundant in boron has been reported. It is not yet clear what the precise role of boron in plant life is, but most researchers agree that the element is in some way essential for the normal growth and functioning of apical meristems, the growing tips of plant shoots.

Pure boron exists in at least four crystalline modifications or allotropes. Closed cages containing 12 boron atoms arranged in the form of an icosahedron occur in the various crystalline forms of elemental boron.

Crystalline boron is almost inert chemically at ordinary temperatures. Boiling hydrochloric acid does not affect it, and hot concentrated nitric acid only slowly converts finely powdered boron to boric acid (H3BO3). Boron in its chemical behaviour is nonmetallic.

In nature, boron consists of a mixture of two stable isotopes—boron-10 (19.9 percent) and boron-11 (80.1 percent); slight variations in this proportion produce a range of ±0.003 in the atomic weight. Both nuclei possess nuclear spin (rotation of the atomic nuclei); that of boron-10 has a value of 3 and that of boron-11, 3/2, the values being dictated by quantum factors. These isotopes are therefore of use in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and spectrometers specially adapted to detecting the boron-11 nucleus are available commercially. The boron-10 and boron-11 nuclei also cause splitting in the resonances (that is, the appearance of new bands in the resonance spectra) of other nuclei (e.g., those of hydrogenatoms bonded to boron).

The boron-10 isotope is unique in that it possesses an extremely large capture cross section (3,836 barns) for thermal neutrons (i.e., it readily absorbs neutrons of low energy). The capture of a neutron by a nucleus of this isotope results in the expulsion of an alpha particle (nucleus of a helium atom, symbolized α):

Since the high-energy alpha particle does not travel far in normal matter, boron and some of its compounds have been used in the fabrication of neutron shields (materials not penetrable by neutrons). In the Geiger counter, alpha particles trigger a response, whereas neutrons do not; hence, if the gas chamber of a Geiger counter is filled with a gaseous boron derivative (e.g., boron trifluoride), the counter will record each alpha particle produced when a neutron that passes into the chamber is captured by a boron-10 nucleus. In this way, the Geiger counter is converted into a device for detecting neutrons, which normally do not affect it.

The affinity of boron-10 for neutrons also forms the basis of a technique known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treating patients suffering from brain tumours. For a short time after certain boron compounds are injected into a patient with a brain tumour, the compounds collect preferentially in the tumour; irradiation of the tumour area with thermal neutrons, which cause relatively little general injury to tissue, results in the release of a tissue-damaging alpha particle in the tumour each time a boron-10 nucleus captures a neutron. In this way destruction can be limited preferentially to the tumour, leaving the normal brain tissue less affected. BNCT has also been studied as a treatment for tumours of the head and neck, the liver, the prostate, the bladder, and the breast.

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