Boron Atom

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We elaborate the uses of Boron and atomic properties with characteristics. Boron is a black-looking chemical element with atomic number 5. Its symbol is B and it belongs to the group of metalloids and its usual state in nature is solid. Boron is located at position 5 on the periodic table.

Download 497 Boron Atom Stock Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or amazingly low rates! New users enjoy 60% OFF. 158,692,256 stock photos online. Boron has been explored as p-block catalysts for nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) by density functional theory. Unlike transition metals, on which the active centers need empty d orbitals to accept the lone-pair electrons of the nitrogen molecule, the sp3hybrid orbital of the boron atom can form B-to-N π-back bonding. Boron as an element is very rare in our entire solar system. Did you know that our Earth’s crust. An electron in a boron atom makes a transition from the fifth excited state to the third excited state. Did the atom become ionized as a result? Did the atom become excited as a result? Was a blackbody spectrum produced? How do you know? Sep 19, 2019 - Explore Jamie Smith's board 'Boron atom' on Pinterest. See more ideas about boron atom, boron, atom.

Boron

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Boron atomic shell

On this page you can discover the chemical properties of boron and information about boron and other elements on the periodic table such as aluminum, beryllium, carbon or helium. You will also learn what boron is for and you will learn what its uses are through its properties associated with boron such as its atomic number or the usual state in which boron can be found.

You will see qualities of boron such as its melting and boiling point, its magnetic properties or what its chemical symbol is. In addition, here you will find information about its atomic properties such as the distribution of electrons in boron atoms and other properties.

For some elements, some of this information is unknown. In these cases we show the properties attributed to them.

Boron properties

Boron is part of the elements called metalloids or semi-metals. These types of elements have intermediate properties between metals and nonmetals. As for its electrical conductivity, this type of materials to which boron belongs, are semiconductors.

The state of boron in its natural form is solid (non-magnetic). Boron is a black-looking chemical element and belongs to the group of metalloids. The atomic number of boron is 5. The chemical symbol for boron is B. The melting point of boron is 2349 degrees Kelvin, or 2076.85 degrees Celsius or degrees Celsius. The boiling point of boron is 4200 degrees Kelvin or 3927.85 degrees Celsius or degrees Celsius.

Uses of boron

Boron is a chemical element that has been used for thousands of years. If you have ever wondered what boron is for , here is a list of its possible uses:

  • A large amount of boron is used in conjunction with sodium tetraborate to insulate fiberglass. It is also used in many detergent and bleach cleaning products.
  • Most of the boron is used to produce glass and ceramics. Borosilicate glass has exceptional resistance to thermal shock (sudden temperature changes that cause the glass to break).
  • Boron filaments are used as lightweight but highly resistant materials in the creation of aerospace structures. It is also used to produce some of golf clubs and fishing rods.
  • Boron carbide protections can be used as control barriers in nuclear reactors. This prevents a nuclear reactor from spinning out of control. Boron carbide is also used in bulletproof vests and tank armor.
  • Metal borides are very strong and are often applied to a substance to increase its hardness.
  • Boron is a part of neodymium magnets , the strongest type of permanent magnet. These magnets are used in magnetic resonance imaging machines, CD and DVD players, mobile phones, timers, and more.
  • Boric acid is sometimes used as an insecticide against ants, fleas, and roaches.
  • Sodium borate can be used as a combustion retardant in plastics and rubber.

Boron Atomic Properties

The atomic mass of an element is determined by the total mass of neutrons and protons that can be found in a single atom belonging to this element. As for the position where to find boron within the periodic table of the elements, boron is in group 13 and period 2. Boron has an atomic mass of 10,811 u.

The electronic configuration for boron is [He] 2s22p1. The electronic configuration of the elements, determines the form in which the electrons are structured in the atoms of an element. The average radius of boron is 85 pm, its atomic radius or Bohr radius is 87 pm, and its covalent radius is 82 pm. Boron has a total of 5 electrons whose distribution is as follows: In the first layer it has 2 electrons and in the second it has 3 electrons.

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Boron characteristics

Below you can see a table showing the main characteristics of boron.

Boron
Chemical symbolB
Atomic number5
Group13
Period2
Appearanceblack
Blockp
Density2460 kg / m3
Atomic massU 10,811
Average radius85 pm
Atomic radio87
Covalent radius82 pm
Electronic configuration[He] 2s22p1
Electrons per layer2. 3
Oxidation states3 (slightly acidic)
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Statesolid
Melting point2349 K
Boiling point4200 K
Heat of fusion50.2 kJ / mol
Vapor pressure0.348
Electronegativity2.04
Specific heat1026 J / (K · kg)
Electric conductivity1.0 × 10-4m-1S / m
Thermal conductivity27.4 W / (Km)

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Article
  • General properties of the group
    • Compounds of the boron group elements
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Join Britannica's Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work! Alan Gibbs MasseySee All Contributors
Reader in Inorganic Chemistry, Loughborough University of Technology, England. Coauthor of Inorganic Chemistry in Non-aqueous Solvents.
Alternative Titles: Group 13 element, Group IIIa element, aluminum group element

Boron group element, any of the six chemical elementsconstituting Group 13 (IIIa) of the periodic table. The elements are boron (B), aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and nihonium (Nh). They are characterized as a group by having three electrons in the outermost parts of their atomic structure. Boron, the lightest of these elements, is a metalloid. Aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium are silvery white metals. Nihonium has only been produced as individual atoms in particle accelerators.

Periodic Table of the Elements
Test your bond with the periodic table of elements in this quiz on all 118 chemical elements and their symbols. You may be familiar with the chemical symbols for hydrogen and oxygen, but can you match such lower-profile elements as gadolinium and erbium with their corresponding symbols?

None of these elements was known in a pure state before modern chemistry isolated them. Very soon after a method had been found to produce it in commercial quantities, aluminum revolutionized industry. With further development of science and technology, specifically in nanotechnology, boron gained significant attention in industrial sectors as well. The other members of the group still have little commercial value. Some of the compounds of boron and aluminum, however, are indispensable in modern technology and have been widely used in many parts of the world throughout recorded history.

History

The use of a boron compound known as borax (sodium tetraborate, Na2B4O7∙10H2O) can be traced back to the ancient Egyptians, who used it as a metallurgical flux (a substance that aids the heat joining or soldering of metals), in medicine, and in mummification. During the 13th century Marco Polo introduced borax into Europe, but not until the mid-19th century, when vast deposits of borates were discovered in the Mojave Desert, did borax become relatively common. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans used a compound of aluminum known as alum (the compound potassium aluminum sulfate) in dyeing as a mordant—i.e., a substance that fixes dye molecules to the fabric. Lapis lazuli, a rare dark blue mineral (the compound sodium aluminum silicate containing sulfur), has been widely used as a semiprecious stone throughout history. The metal aluminum was first isolated early in the 19th century, but it was not until a modern electrolytic process based on the use of bauxite ore had been developed that commercial production of aluminum became economically feasible. Three other boron group elements—gallium, indium, and thallium—were first detected spectroscopically (i.e., by analysis of the light emitted by or passed through substances containing the element) in the late 19th century. The existence and properties of gallium were predicted by a Russian chemist, Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, on the basis of the periodic table of the elements that he had developed; the ultimate discovery of gallium and the accuracy of his description of the properties of the then unknown element convinced scientists of the theoretical soundness of the table. Gallium is one of two metals (the other is cesium) whose melting points are low enough for them to turn to liquid when held in the hand. Nihonium was artificially produced in a particle accelerator in 2004.

Boron Atomic Structure

General properties of the group

Ionization energies

Every element in the boron group has three electrons in its outermost shell (so-called valence electrons), and for each element there is a sharp jump in the amount of energy required to remove the fourth electron, reflecting the fact that this electron must be removed from an inner shell. Consequently, the elements of the group have maximum oxidation numbers of three, corresponding to loss of the first three electrons, and form ions with three positive charges.

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The apparently erratic way in which ionization energies vary among the elements of the group is due to the presence of the filled inner d orbitals in gallium, indium, and thallium, and the f orbital in thallium, which do not shield the outermost electrons from the pull of the nuclear charge as efficiently as do the inner s and p electrons. In Groups 1 and 2 (Ia and IIa), in contrast to the boron group, outer shell (always referred to as n) electrons are shielded in every case by a constant inner set of electrons, in the (n-1)s2(n-1)p6 orbitals, and the ionization energies of these Group-1 and Group-2 elements decrease smoothly down the group. The ionization energies of gallium, indium, and thallium are thus higher than expected from their Group 2 counterparts because their outer electrons, being poorly shielded by the inner d and f electrons, are more strongly bound to the nucleus. This shielding effect also makes the atoms of gallium, indium, and thallium smaller than the atoms of their Group 1 and 2 neighbours by causing the outer electrons to be pulled closer toward the nucleus.

The M3+ state for gallium, indium, and thallium is energetically less favourable than Al3+ because the high ionization energies of these three elements cannot always be balanced by the crystal energies of possible reaction products. For example, of the simple, anhydrous compounds of thallium in its +3 oxidation state, only the trifluoride, TlF3, is ionic. For the group as a whole, therefore, the M3+ ionic state is the exception rather than the rule. More commonly the elements of the group form covalent bonds and achieve an oxidation state of three by promoting one electron from the s orbital in the outer shell (designated ns orbital) to an np orbital, the shift permitting the formation of hybrid, or combination, orbitals (of the variety designated as sp2). Increasingly down the group there is a tendency toward the formation of M+ ions, and at thallium the +1 oxidation state is the more stable one. The basicity (a property of metals) of the elements also increases in proceeding down the group, as shown by the oxides they form: boric oxide (formula B2O3) is acidic; the next three oxides, of aluminum, gallium, and indium (formulas Al2O3, Ga2O3, and In2O3) are either acidic or basic depending on the environment (a property called amphoterism); and thallic oxide (Tl2O3) is wholly basic.

Boron Atomic Number

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Boron Atoms

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