Amedeo Avogadro Contribution

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Further Reading on Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro. A discussion of Avogadro's life and work appears in J. Partington, A History of Chemistry, vol. See also Sir William Augustus Tilden, Famous Chemists: The Men and Their Work (1921); Eduard Farber, The Evolution of Chemistry: A History of Its Ideas, Methods and Materials (1952; 2d ed. Leicester and Herbert S. Amedeo Avogadro, in full Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, conte di Quaregna e Cerreto, (born August 9, 1776, Turin, in the Kingdom of Sardinia and Piedmont Italy—died July 9, 1856, Turin), Italian mathematical physicist who showed in what became known as Avogadro’s law that, under controlled conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain an equal number of molecules. Amedeo Avogadro's principal contribution to chemistry was a paper in which he advanced two hypotheses: (1) that equal volumes of gas contain equal numbers of molecules and (2) that elementary gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen were composed of two atoms. Amedeo Avogadro Lornezo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregna e di Cerretowas a famous creation scientist best known for his contributions to chemistry. He was born in Turin, and his family was also well-known as a lawyer in Italy. He fame is derived from his contribution about molecular law, known as Avogadro's lawand Avogadro's number.

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Life of Amedeo Avogadro (back to sectionFamous Italians)
Count Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregna e Cerreto (Turin August 9, 1776 Cerreto? July 9, 1856) - better known as Amedeo Avogadro -was an Italian scientist born in the Kingdom of Sardinia ad Piedmont, most noted for his contributions to the theory of molarity and molecular weight. The number of molecules in one mole is called Avogadro's number is honor of him, as is Avogadro's law.
His family's business was the law, and Amedeo followed in his father's footsteps earning a doctorate of law in 1796. He graduated in ecclesiastical law at a very young age (20) and began to practice. However, soon after he dedicated himself to the study of physics and mathematics, his preferred sciences, and in 1809 he started teaching them (then called positive philosophy) at a liceo (high school) in Vercelli (where his family had some properties).

He was apparently well liked by his students, who appreciated is impish sense of humor, and quickly settled down into a happy marriage blessed with six sons. In his free time he did a lot of reading and had a complete set of the current scientific journals in his library printed in four different languages.


During this stay in Vercelli he wrote a concise note (memoria) in which he declared the hypothesis of what we now call Avogadro's law: equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules; this memoria he sent to De Lam?herie's Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire naturelle and it was published in the edition of July 14, 1811 with the title Essai d'une mani?e de d?erminer les masses relatives des molecules ??entaires des corps, et les proportions selon lesquelles elles entrent dans ces combinaisons (complete English text here: [1] (http://webserver.lemoyne.edu/faculty/giunta/avogadro.html) - First page: [2] (http://www.accademiaxl.it/Library/Percorsi/images/Image52.jpg)).
Avogadro's Law implies that the relationship occurring between the weights of same volumes of different gases (at the same temperature and pressure) corresponds to the relationship between respective molecular weights. Hence, relative molecular masses can be calculated from the masses of gas samples.
Avogadro developed this hypothesis after Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac had published in 1808 his law on volumes (and combining gases). The greatest difficulty Avogadro had to resolve was the huge confusion at that time regarding atoms and molecules ? one of most important contributions of Avogadro's work was clearly distinguishing one from the other, admitting that simple particles too could be composed of molecules, and that these are composed of atoms. For instance, John Dalton didn't consider this possibility. Avogadro did not actually use the word 'atom' as the words 'atom' and 'molecule' were used almost without difference. He considered that there were three kinds of 'molecules,' including an 'elementary molecule' (our 'atom'). Also, a keener attention was given to the definition of mass, as distinguished from weight.
In 1814 he published M?oire sur les masses relatives des mol?ules des corps simples, ou densit? pr?um?s de leur gaz, et sur la constitution de quelques-uns de leur compos?, pour servir de suite ?l'Essai sur le m?e sujet, publi?dans le Journal de Physique, juillet 1811 ([3] (http://www.accademiaxl.it/Library/Percorsi/images/Image54.jpg)), about gas densities.
In 1820 he became a professor of Turin's university; In 1821 he published another memoria, Nouvelles consid?ations sur la th?rie des proportions d?ermin?s dans les combinaisons, et sur la d?ermination des masses des mol?ules des corps and little after M?oire sur la mani?e de ramener les compos? organiques aux lois ordinaires des proportions d?ermin?s.
With suspicious enthusiasm, he took part in political revolutionary movements of 1821 (against the king of Sardinia), so two years later he was removed from his position (or, as it was officially declared, the university was very glad to allow this interesting scientist to take a rest from heavy teaching duties, in order to be able to give a better attention to his researches). However, over time this political isolation was gradually reduced, since revolutionary ideas were receiving increasing attention from Savoy kings, up to 1848 when Charles Albert granted a modern Constitution (Statuto Albertino). Well before this, following the increasing attention to his works, Avogadro had been recalled at Turin university in 1833, where he taught for another twenty years.
In 1841 he completed and published his work in Fisica dei corpi ponderabili, ossia Trattato della costituzione materiale de' corpi, 4 volumes.
Very little is known about his private life and his political activity; despite his unpleasant aspect (at least as depicted in the rare images found), he was known as a discreet tombeur de femmes although devoted to a sober life and a religious man. He had six children. Several historical studies would confirm that he had sponsored and helped some Sardinian plotters who were organising a revolution in that island, stopped at the very last moment by the concession of Charles Albert's statute. Some doubts however remain, considering the very little amount of evidence.
Avogadro held public posts in statistics, meteorology, and weights and measures (he introduced decimal metric system in Piedmont) and was a member of the Royal Superior Council on Public Instruction.
The scientific society didn't reserve a great attention at his theory, so Avogadro's hypothesis wasn't immediately accepted when announced. Andr?Marie Amp?e too was able three years later to achieve the same result by another method (in his Sur la d?ermination des proportions dans lesquelles les corps se combinent d'apr? le nombre et la disposition respective des mol?ules dont leurs particules int?rantes sont compos?s), but the same indifferent regard was given to his theories as well.
Only with studies by Gerhardt, Laurent and Williamson on organic chemistry, was it possible to demonstrate that Avogadro's law was indispensable to explain why same quantities of molecules, brought to a vapour state, have the same volume.
Unfortunately, in the performance of related experiments, some inorganic substances showed exceptions to the law. The matter was finally concluded by Stanislao Cannizzaro, as announced at Karlsruhe Congress (1860, four years after Avogadro's death), where he explained that these exceptions happened because of molecular dissociations which occurred at certain temperatures, and that Avogadro's law could determine not only molar masses, but as a consequence, atomic masses too.
Clausius, by his kinetic theory on gases, was able to give another confirmation of Avogadro's law. Not long after, in his researches regarding dilute solutions (and the consequent discovery of analogies between the behaviour of solutions and gases), J. H. van 't Hoff added his final consensus for the triumph of the Italian scientist, who since then has been considered the founder of the atomic-molecular theory.
In honor of Avogadro's contributions to the theory of molarity and molecular weights, the number of molecules in one mole was renamed Avogadro's number. Which is approximately 6.02214199 ?1023.

But in his own time, Avogadro's principle was seriously neglected. Historians of science have several theories as to why this should be so, as Avogadro was a respected scientist during his life. One possibility was that a more famous scientist, J. J. Berzelius, was strongly advocating his 'dualism' theory which explained compound substances (molecules?) on the basis that one half of the compound had to have a positive charge and the other half a negative charge (to hold the two halves together). It was hard to see how two atoms of oxygen in one of Avogadro's 'molecules' could have different charges.

But the real reason is probably more prosaic. In the clannish world of scientific discovery, it pays to be at the center of the action. Avogadro was by this time a professor, and chairman, of physical chemistry at the University of Turin, but in Italy - far away from the major science centers of England, Germany, France or even Sweden. He never got to rub shoulders with the 'great ones' of his day, so his ideas did not receive the credit they deserved.

He was a professor until his retirement at the age of 74. He died on July 9th, 1856.

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Amedeo Avogadro

Lornezo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregna e di Cerreto was a famous creation scientist best known for his contributions to chemistry. He was born in Turin, and his family was also well-known as a lawyer in Italy. He fame is derived from his contribution about molecular law, known as Avogadro's law and Avogadro's number. Also, he has taught many scientific theories to his students. [1]

Biography

Books amedeo avogadro

He was born August 9, 1779 in Turin, Italy. He was a very famous Italian scientist. He wanted to follow his family's steps and then so he decided to enter into the study of ecclesiastical law. [2]. He had achieved success as an ecclesiastical lawyer; he had a interest in a variety of sciences like natural philosophy, mathematics, and physics at that time. Therefore, he was selected as the demonstrator in Turin and started to teach his students in college. [3]. He gained many achievements as a chemist and then retired in 1850. His working must be contributed increasing of scientific development today. He wanted to follow his father's step and then he could be a famous chemist in science.

LawyerAvogadro was born by Count Filippo Avogadro and Anna Maria Verellone. He close affection with his family led him into a legal career. His father was famous lawyer and he also became a lawyer in Turin. As a lawyer, he used to teach his students and he struggled to increase education at that time. In spite of his lawyer training, he had lots of interests about science and then he decided to became a chemist. He contributed to develop increasing of scientific innovation[4].

Avogadro's law

Avogadro's law demonstrated by H2O.

Avogadro's law isscientific law regarding the nature of chemical changes. The law states that for volumes of gases with equal temperatures and pressures, they have the same number of molecules.[5]. Although his laws were not considered important until 1858, he claimed that particles could be combined of molecules throughout his hypothesis at that time. Particles were formed by units and atoms. It was declared to explain gas reactions by Avogadro. It can be shown by V/N=K. The important thing was that the gas had equal value gases. Furthermore, a mole is a unit which is the amount of substance contained in 6.022x1023. Therefore, Avogadro's number is known as 6.022x1023 molecules/gram. The size of number is hard to understand and it is a huge number. It was determined by the mole.[6]. It brought many affected results such as Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Gay-Lussac's law. It also contributed to cause scientific development. [7]

ContributionsAmedeo Avogadro had remained many contributions as a chemist in the world. He had been experienced pains, obstacles, and adversity during his life. Especially, he helped to claim a variety of laws to help developing of science at that time.[8]. For example, Avogadro’s law is one of the important hypothesises when he declared at that time. It is the relationship whit volume of gases, same temperature and pressure, and molecular weight. Its used to be neglected until it was portrayed by Stanislao Cannizarro. It was shown the book in the world.[9]. Also, he declared an article about Journal de physique in 1811. It represents differences of the molecules and atom throughout his experiments. He defined that the word “mole” to mean the smallest compounds. It was the motivation to know how he was great chemist at that time.

Avogadro

Nineteenth-CenturyThere were a lot of scientists in Nineteenth-century; they were John Dalton,Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, and Amedeo Avogadro. They had brought many laws to increase scientific development at that time. They caused many changes to make development at that time and then they accomplished growth rapidly.[10] Avogadro was one of the people who contributed to help growth of science. Avogadro's molecular theory was one of the representative laws. [11]

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Amedeo Avogadro (Avogadro's law)

Amedeo Avogadro Contributions

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Amedeo Avogadro Contribution To Science

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