Death: July 9, 1856
Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, although born into a family of ecclesiastical lawyers, began delving into science in 1800. He did, however, graduate from ecclesiastical law when he was 20 years old, but afterwords he began to study mathematics, physics, and chemistry. In 1809, he started teaching at a high school in Vercelli where his family had a large amount of property. Very little was recorded dealing with his private life, but he had six children and a wife. He lost his position at a university for supposedly assisting the people of Sardinia in an uprise, but it was later returned to him.
In 1811, he made his first substantial contribution to the field of Chemistry when he published a work that described the difference between an atom and a molecule. In this publication also stood Avogadro's Principle, which states that 'equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules' (Johnson, bulldog.u-net.com). Although not accepted until 1858, the notion was extended by Stanislao Cannizarro, who found that from that principle, both molar mass and atomic mass could be determined. In this same year, he also wrote a large amount of essays. One very popular essay was called 'Essai d'une manière de déterminer les masses relatives des molécules élémentaires des corps, et les proportions selon lesquelles elles entrent dans ces combinaisons' also known as 'Essay on Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies and the Proportions by Which They Enter These Combinations'. He submitted this essay to a French journal and therefore the essay was written in French instead of Itailian.
During the year 1920, he became a teacher of physics at the University of Turin. He took apart in the revolutionary movements of 1821 against the King of Sardinia. Due to his involvement, he lost his chair two years later. Ten years later he was rehired at the university and he continued teaching there for another 20 years. There is not much known about Avogadro's life except that he married a woman by the name of Felicita Mazzé and he had six children with her. He did a lot dealing with Statistics, meterology as well as weights and measurements. In fact, he introduced the metric system into Piedmont and was a member of the Royal Superior Council on Public Instruction.
Although the term 'mole' was not used until 1893 in Germany, 6.022e23 is called Avogadro's number, though he himself had nothing to do with it directly. Rather, Cannizarro, and later Jan Josef Loschmidt, performed experiments to find the number. However, his significant contributions and theories led his successors in chemistry to name the number after him. The number is used to determine the results of chemical reactions.
Avogadro passed away on July 9, 1856 at the age of 79 in Turnin, Italy where he was born. Nobody knows how he died exactly but he still left a great impact. Avogadro will always be remembered as a great chemist.