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General Motors is an innovator of automatic transmissions, introducing the Hydra-Matic in 1940. This list includes some GM transmissions.
The GM Hydra-Matic was a success and installed in the majority of GM models by 1950. Through the 1950s, all makers were working on their own automatic transmission, with four more developed inside GM alone. All of GM's early automatic transmissions were replaced by variants of the Turbo-Hydramatic by the 1970s.
Allison Manual Transmission
- 1940–1967 Hydra-Matic — Oldsmobile (now the trade name for all GM automatic transmissions)
- 1948–1963 Dynaflow — Buick
- 1950–1973 Powerglide — Chevrolet (also used by Pontiac, Holden, Vauxhall and Opel)
- 1968-1971 Torquedrive- Chevrolet ( Camaro and Chevy II, Nova. Manually shifted on Column. )
- 1957–1961 Turboglide — Chevrolet (V8 models only, except Corvette)
- 1958–1959 Flightpitch — Buick
- 1961–1963 Dual Path Turbine Drive — Buick
- 1961–1964 Roto Hydramatic — Oldsmobile/Pontiac (also used by Holden)
- 1964–1969 Super Turbine 300 — Buick/Oldsmobile/Pontiac (Oldsmobile Jetaway)
- 1968–1969 Torquedrive — Chevrolet (manually column shifted 2 speed automatic, 6 cyl only)
- 1956-1964 4 speed Controlled coupling HydraMatic, also known as Cadillac 315 or P 315 HydraMatic, Oldsmobile Jetaway, Pontiac Super HydraMatic.
- TempestTorque, ( Pontiac) a two speed based on Powerglide, but having the added feature of ' Split Torque ' dividing the engine power between mechanical connection and the torque converter in high gear.
Allison Gearbox Manual
The Turbo-Hydramatic was used by all GM divisions, and formed the basis for the company's modern Hydramatic line. The basic rear-wheel drive Turbo-Hydramatic spawned two front-wheel drive variants, the transverseTurbo-Hydramatic 125, and the longitudinalTurbo-Hydramatic 425. A third variant was the light-duty rear wheel drive Turbo-Hydramatic 180 used in many European models.
Allison Transmission 2700
- Heavy-duty rear wheel drive
- 1971–1994 3L80HD (heavy duty version of TH400)
- Medium-duty rear wheel drive
- 1964–1992 Super Turbine 400/TH400/3L80
- 1969–1986 TH350/TH350C/TH375B/TH250/TH250C
- 1972–1976 TH375 — Light duty version of TH400
- 1976–1987 TH200/TH200C
- 1981–1990 TH200-4R
- 1982–1993 TH700R4/4L60
- Light-duty rear wheel drive
- 1969–1998 TH180/TH180C/3L30 — 3-speed European/Asian model. Also manufactured and used by Holden as the Trimatic transmission.
- Transverse front wheel drive
- 1980–1999 TH125/TH125C/3T40 — 3-speed light-duty
- 1984–1994 TH440-T4/4T60 — 4-speed medium-duty
- Longitudinal front wheel drive
- 1966–1978 TH425 — 3-speed
- 1979–1981 TH325 — 3-speed
- 1982–1985 TH325-4L — 4-speed
The next-generation transmissions, introduced in the early 1990s, were the electronic Hydra-Matics based on the Turbo-Hydramatic design. Most early electronic transmissions use the '-E' designator to differentiate them from their non-electronic cousins, but this has been dropped on transmissions with no mechanical version like the new GM 6L80 transmission.
Today, GM uses a simple naming scheme for their transmissions, with the 'Hydra-Matic' name used on most automatics across all divisions.
|Number of forward gears||L=Longitudinal|
|GVWR rating||'E' for Electronic|
'HD' for Heavy Duty
- First-generation longitudinal (Rear Wheel drive)
- 1991–2001 4L30-E — 4-speed light-duty (used in BMW, Cadillac, Isuzu, and Opel cars)
- 1992– 4L60-E/4L65-E — 4-speed medium-duty (used in GM trucks and rear-wheel-drive cars)
- 1991– 4L80-E/4L85-E — 4-speed heavy-duty (used in GM trucks)
- First-generation transverse (Front Wheel drive)
- 1995–2010 4T40-E/4T45-E — 4-speed light-duty (used in smaller front wheel drive GM vehicles)
- 1991–2010 4T60-E/4T65-E/4T65E-HD — 4-speed medium-duty (used in larger front wheel drive GM vehicles)
- 1993–2010 4T80-E — 4-speed heavy-duty (used in large front wheel drive GM vehicles, only with Cadillac NorthStar V8.
- Second-generation longitudinal (Rear Wheel drive)
- 2000–2007 5L40-E/5L50 — 5-speed medium-duty (used in Cadillac's Sigma vehicles)
- 2007–present 6L45/6L50 — 6-speed medium-duty (used in GM Sigma platform cars)
- 2006–present: 6L80/6L90 — 6-speed heavy-duty (used in GM trucks and performance cars)
- 2014–present: 8L90 — 8-speed heavy-duty (used in GM trucks and performance cars)
- 2016–present: 8L45 — 8-speed light-duty (used in GM luxury cars)
- 2017–present: 10L80 - Ford-GM 10-speed automatic transmission (used in GM light trucks including pickups and related SUVs)
- 2017–present: 10L90 - Ford-GM 10-speed automatic transmission (used in GM performance cars)
*This transmission is part of a joint-venture between General Motors and Ford Motor Company to split development of two transmissions, a longitudinal 10-speed and transverse 9-speed. Ford led the design of the 10-speed transmission, as well as filing the design patents for said transmission. According to an official report by the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) the design of the 10-speed gearbox is essentially all Ford, while GM was responsible for designing the 9-speed 9T transverse automatic gearbox. As part of their joint-venture, Ford will let GM use the 10-speed transmission with rights to modify and manufacture it for their own applications. In-exchange for Ford's 10-speed transmission, General Motors will let Ford use its 9-speed transmission for front-wheel drive applications; Ford ultimately declined use of the 9T.
- Second-generation transverse (Front Wheel drive)
- 2008–present: 6T30/6T40/6T45 — 6-speed light-duty
- 2006–present: 6T70/6T75 — 6-speed medium-duty
- 2016–present: 9T50/9T65 Hydra-Matic – 9-speed
Hybrid and PHEV
- 2ML70 - 2-Mode Hybrid transmission.
- 4ET50 (MKA) - Electric Drive Unit Transaxle (First Generation Chevrolet Volt / Cadillac ELR)
- 5ET50 (MKV) - Electronically controlled, continuously-variable automatic transaxle (Second Generation Chevrolet Volt)
- 5ET50 (MKE) - Electronically controlled, continuously-variable automatic transaxle Transaxle (Full Hybrid, Ninth Generation Chevrolet Malibu)
- 4EL70 (MRD) - Electric Drive Unit Transmission (PHEV Cadillac CT6)
- Aisin AF33 — 5-speed transverse automatic made by Aisin AW Co., Ltd.
- Allison 1000 Series — 6-speed longitudinal automatic made by Allison Transmission
- Saturn MP6/MP7 — 4-speed automatic developed by Saturn for use in the S-series from 1991 to 2002
- VTi transmission — continuously variable transmission
- Tremec M1L transmission — 8-speed Dual-Clutch made by Tremec for the Chevrolet Corvette C8
- GM CVT250 — continuously variable transmission
- Aisin AR5/MA5 — 5-speed longitudinal manual made by Aisin
- Aisin AY6 — 6-speed longitudinal manual made by Aisin
- Getrag 260 — 5-speed longitudinal manual made by Getrag
- Muncie M20 — 4-speed longitudinal wide ratio manual transmission made by GM at their Muncie, Indiana factory
- Muncie M21 — 4-speed longitudinal close ratio manual transmission made by GM at their Muncie, Indiana factory
- Muncie M22 — 4-speed longitudinal heavy duty close ratio manual transmission made by GM at their Muncie, Indiana factory
- Saginaw M26/27 transmission — 3 and 4-speed longitudinal light duty (less than 300 hp wide ratio manual transmission made by GM at their Saginaw, Michigan factory
- Muncie M62/M64 — 3-speed longitudinal transmission made by GM
- Muncie SM420 — 4-speed manual used up to 1967, very similar to sm 465 except small changes to gear ratios and location of reverse.
- New Process Gear NP435 - 4-speed longitudinal transmission used in a select handful of 67-72 GM pickups
- New Process Gear A833 RPO MY6 or MM7 — 4-speed longitudinal A833 overdrive transmission made by New Process Gear for early to mid 1980s General Motors Light Trucks
- Muncie SM465 — 4-speed longitudinal manual used in 68- 91 Chevy 1/2 3/4 and 1 ton trucks
- New Venture Gear NV1500 — 5-speed longitudinal manual made by New Venture Gear
- New Venture Gear 3500/4500 — 5-speed longitudinal manual made by New Venture Gear
- Borg-Warner T-10 transmission — 4-speed longitudinal manual currently made by Richmond Gear; originally made by Borg-Warner
- Tremec T-5 — 5-speed longitudinal manual currently made by Tremec; originally made by Borg-Warner
- Borg-Warner T-50 transmission — 5-speed longitudinal manual - used by GM in its H Body cars and a few other limited light duty applications from 1976 to 1978;
- Tremec T-56 — 6-speed longitudinal manual overdrive made by Tremec; formerly made by Borg-Warner
- Tremec TR-6060 — 6-speed longitudinal manual overdrive made by Tremec
- ZF S6-650 — 6-speed longitudinal manual made by ZF Friedrichshafen
- Tremec TR-6070 — 7-speed longitudinal manual overdrive made by Tremec
- F23 — 5-speed transverse manual manufactured by Getrag
- F35 — 5-speed transverse manual manufactured by Saab in Gothenburg, Sweden
- F40 — 6-speed transverse manual manufactured by FGP Germany
- Getrag 282 — 5-speed transverse manual designed by Getrag and manufactured by Muncie Getrag
- Getrag 284 — 5-speed transverse manual designed by Getrag and manufactured by Muncie Getrag
- MP2/MP3 — 5-speed manual developed by Saturn for use in the S-Series from 1991 to 2002
- ^'Hydra-Matic History: The First Automatic Transmission'. Ate Up With Motor. 2010-05-29. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
- ^'Exclusive: An Inside Look At Ford's New 10 Speed Transmission'. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/. Retrieved 2015-03-16.External link in
- ^Brooke, Lindsay. 'Ford and GM finally consummate 9- and 10-speed joint development'. articles.sae. SAE International. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- ^'Ford passes on GM's 9-speed automatic transmission'. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
- ^Panait, Mircea. 'GM Hydra-Matic 9T50 Transmission Confirmed for Chevrolet Cruze, Malibu, Equinox'. autoevolution. Retrieved 2016-12-07.
- ^'GM Service Insights, pg 23'(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-01-09. Retrieved 2019-07-16.
- ^'GM Service Insights, pg 23'(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-01-09. Retrieved 2019-07-16.